Environmental and Social Impact Assessment Case Studies
Çanakkale Bridge and Motorway Project
The 1915 Çanakkale Bridge and Motorway Project, where Garanti BBVA is the intercreditor agent, has a total of 88 kilometers length between Malkara and Çanakkale is developed by the Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications General Directorate of Highways. The project will be the world's longest suspension bridge with a 2023-meter long span and with a total length of 4.6 kilometer.
Within the scope of the project, an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) process has been carried out in accordance with international standards, in particular Equator Principles, IFC Performance Standards and Garanti BBVA Climate Change Action Plan. ESIA has been carried out to outline and document the potential environmental and social impacts and provide mitigation measures to prevent, avoid, reduce or compensate for any adverse impacts. Some of the actions taken are listed below:
- For each tree to be affected within the scope of the project, 5 trees will be planted.
- Throughout the project route, geophysical surveys and geotechnical studies have been carried out and the potential risks and sensitive areas (unexploded mines, archaeological finds etc.) have been determined in advance and necessary precautions have been taken.
- During the studies carried out in the Çanakkale Bosphorus, experts will monitor marine mammals and ensure that construction methods and possible noisy works will be carried out in such a way as not to cause harm to living environment.
- Environmental noise monitoring and modeling studies will be carried out in the project. Noise levels will be minimized by measures such as landscape, noise barriers, asphalt type change, where noise limits are likely to be exceeded.
- The Community Support Program will be implemented by providing education, consultancy and equipment support to improve the socio-economic conditions of the settlements located near the project route.
- A transparent communication policy will be followed at all stages of the project and the community and all stakeholders will be informed about the construction and operation phases. A Grievance Mechanism will be established and implemented to manage the queries and grievances.
For more details about the project, you can visit the project web site www.1915canakkale.com.
The following social investment programs undertaken by TREDAŞ, one of Garanti BBVA's customers committed to comply with international best E&S standards, are among the best practices on an international scale, setting an example for projects of similar nature.
Participation of women to the workforce:
Because the electricity distribution works are not preferred by women, the number of female workforce in TREDAŞ is very low. In 2017, following the inclusion of the repair and maintenance personnel, the ratio of women to total number of employees dropped down from 15% to 9% because all employees (394 persons) taken into the permanent employee status are men.
In an attempt to address this issue, TREDAŞ has undertaken an important campaign, started in 2017, with the support of EBRD in accordance with the principle of "harmonious equality". In this context, works primarily focusing on increasing women employment were started. To this end, female students in high schools are contacted and encouraged to choose electricity departments in universities. Support and internship programs were established by contacting the students who are studying in the electricity faculties; and vocational trainings have been provided. In addition, important steps have been taken to improve working conditions for women. The works on prevention of discrimination, fair opportunity and social gender is advancing with the support and guidance of senior management.
Awareness raising campaigns have been organised and the incentive has been disseminated through TREDAŞ web site and printed material.
Occupational Health and Safety:
TREDAŞ operations are classified as ‘very dangerous’ as per the Turkish occupational health and safety legislation in force. Due to nature of operations, TREDAŞ has faced severe accidents in the past which resulted, unfortunately, in a number of fatalities. In an attempt to address this, TREDAŞ has invested significantly to improve the occupational health and safety practices, invested in state-of-the-art personal protective equipment and closely monitors the site practices by its dedicated occupational health and safety team through regular internal inspections.
TREDAŞ has also established a Technical Training Center in Lüleburgaz to provide theoretical and practical training to its employees, in particular those working in the field. The trainings provide a general framework to increase awareness of TREDAŞ personnel in terms of health and safety and also focus on practices regarding work-at-height and working with electricity.
Bird Research Project:
Because of their size and prominence, above ground electrical infrastructures represent significant risks for birds if certain precautionary measures are not taken. Most above ground power lines present potentially fatal risks for birds through risks of collision with overhead wires and the risk of electrocution. Thrace Region is among the important bird migration routes in the world. Due to intensive bird activity in its region, TREDAS has initiated a research and development (R&D) project in order to mitigate the risks posed by the electricity distribution lines to birds and reduce the number of electricity shortages associated with bird activities. The R&D project is approved and supported by the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA).
Bird Research Project focused particularly on the following topics to better understand the baseline conditions in Thrace Region in terms of bird activity and to devise techniques and measures to help reduce bird collisions:
- Research of breeding areas and migration routes within Thrace Region;
- Mapping of bird habitats in Thrace Region;
- The interaction of different bird species with the distribution lines;
- Bird related malfunctions in the distributions lines; and
- Measures and techniques to keep the birds away from the lines in order to mitigate bird mortality and injuries.
A bird habitat assessment report, a bird protection plan and a pilot applications report has been prepared within the within the scope of the R&D Project. The results of the R&D project may serve as a guideline for the electricity distribution sector in Turkey.
Bilkent Integrated Health Campus (Bilkent IHC)
Environmental and Social Management and Monitoring Program (ESMMP) has been prepared and drawn upon international standards and guidelines including the International Finance Institutions Performance Standards and the Equator Principles (EPs). The Project scope includes the design, procurement and construction of hospital buildings within the campus and the operation and maintenance over a 25 years period after commissioning. In addition to the construction of main hospital buildings (main hospital core and six towers), a medical observation clinic, an administration building for the Ministry of Health (MoH), a high security psychiatry hospital, a rehabilitation hospital and technical services buildings will integrate to the Campus. The Campus will be the largest health campus in the world built under single contract and employed over 7.000 direct labor force at peak with over 45 million man-hours expected to be spent.
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study has been carried out for the environmental and social assessment of the Project, to document the potential environmental and social impacts associated with its construction and provide mitigation measures to prevent, avoid, reduce or compensate for any adverse impacts. The aim of the ESIA is to describe the Project and the impacts it is predicted to have on the environmental and social baseline conditions. Furthermore, it aims to explain how the Project has been designed and how it will be implemented in order to minimize its adverse impacts and maximize its benefits. The subject of the impact assessment are Air Quality, Noise, Water, Wastewater and Groundwater, Soil, Geo-hazards, Waste, Traffic, Ecology, Resettlement, Population Influx, Local Economy and Local Livelihoods, Community Health, Safety and Security, Access to Services and Infrastructure, Occupational Health, Labor and Working Conditions, and Cultural Heritage.
Environmental and Social Management and Monitoring Program (ESMMP) has been prepared and drawn upon international standards and guidelines including the Performance Standards of the IFC and the Equator Principles (EPs). The Project Company is committed to full compliance with all Turkish EIA Regulations, the international lending PSs of the IFC and EPs.
The Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) has been prepared in accordance with the Performance Standards (PSs) of the IFC, the EPs and the common social policy and corporate principles of the sponsors of the Bilkent IHC Project.
Many energy-efficient systems will be employed in the Bilkent IHC. One of the systems is the tri-generation plant. The blower and exhaust fans as well as circulation pumps and pumps used in a part of the cooling system will be frequency-controlled to save energy. Use of frequency-controlled pumps aim to decrease the annual total energy consumption up to 25%. In addition to this environmental technologies such as Low-NOx burners will be used for minimization of NOx at tri-generator plant.
All of the actions identified as mitigations relating to construction and operation of the Project have been collated and presented in a separate document as an Environmental and Social Action Plan (ESAP). The related actions that will be taken by the Borrowers are periodically monitored by us. The Environmental and Social Monitoring Report of the Bilkent IHC Project are preparing to meet Borrower’s requirements in accordance with the Facility Agreement. Monitoring reports cover all of the information relating to Borrower’s compliance with Environmental Law, Environmental and Social Standards, Environmental Permits, Environmental and Social Action Plan and Environmental and Social Report Requirements of the Facility Agreement. Health and Safety Performance of the Project are also monitored.
Construction Permit of the Project was secured on April, 2015 and it is planned to finish the whole construction works by October, 2018 with phased completions starting from June 2017.
ISO 9001, ISO 14001 (for Project Companies) & OHSAS 18001 (Bilkent IHC Project and Istanbul Office of the Project Company) Management Systems Certifications are to be secured with the commencement of the operation of the Campus.
The Project Company is committed to full compliance with related national labor legislation and the Performance Standards (PSs) of International Finance Corporation (IFC). Within this scope, periodical IFC PS 2 Compliance Audit Reports are being prepared for the purpose of checking labor and working conditions of the Project construction phase against the ESAP. The interviews were conducted by the experts with more than 100 employees in the Focus Group Discussions.
Gebze-Orhangazi-Izmir Motorway (including the İzmit Gulf Crossing and Access Roads) Project
Gebze-Orhangazi-İzmir Motorway (including the İzmit Gulf Crossing and Access Roads) Project consists of the financing, design, construction, operation and maintenance and transfer of 433 km of new three-lane dual carriageway tolled Motorway. It includes a crossing by a suspension bridge of the Izmit Gulf between Dil İskelesi in the north and the Hersek Peninsula in the South, the design and construction and transfer of 44 km of new Access Roads, the taking over and operation and maintenance and transfer of 27 km of existing highway and the design and construction of the widening and transfer of 3 km of existing Motorway and an interchange.
A comprehensive Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) Report was prepared by the Independent Consultant Company in accordance with International Finance Corporation (IFC), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and the Equator Principles (EPs) requirements as a part of Financial Agreement.
ESIA is a study predicting and evaluating the impacts the Project might have on the physical, natural, cultural, social and socioeconomic environment during the design, construction and operation phases, and identifying measures that Borrower’s will need to take to avoid, reduce, remedy, offset or compensate for adverse impacts, and to provide benefits where possible. A Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP) was prepared as part of the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) Report. SEP describes the mechanisms by which people especially local communities and other stakeholders to be are informed about the Project and gives opportunities to provide comments and input to the Project development. ESIA summarized this mitigation in its Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) and suggested to develop a series of plans and procedures to set arrangements for implementation and monitoring these mitigations throughout the Project. As a part of the ESMP requirements, a route-wide Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) for the terrestrial and freshwater environmental has been also prepared in accordance with the findings of ecological studies for the Project. Animal Crossing Procedure has been also prepared to identify specific locations to maintain ecological connectivity to fragmentation within the areas specified in ESMP and provide suitable design for converting culverts and underpasses to be used by target species and a design for new animal crossings in accordance with Designing Road Crossings for Safe Wildlife Passage: Venture County Guidelines. In addition to BAP, several documents has been prepared such as Land Acquisition Compensation and Resettlement Plan (LACRP), Emergency Prevention and Response Plan (EPRP), Cultural Heritage Mitigation Strategy including A Change Finds Procedure (CFP), Human Resources and Labour Management Plan, Occupational Health and Safety Management Plan, Marine Environmental Design Management Plan (MEDMP), Marine Environmental Construction Management Plan (MECMP), Terrestrial Environmental Construction Management Plan (TECMP).
Environmental and social monitoring studies are periodically conducting for the Project and construction works are being evaluating in detail with respect to environmental impacts, permits and licenses, workers health and safety, archaeological sites, grievance mechanism and expropriation. During the monitoring period of the Project, implementations of the site specific mitigation along the motorway related to wetland, watercourses and sensitive areas are reviewing by the independent consultant company and Lenders.
The Phase I (Approximately 52 km / Gebze-İzmir) and Phase II-A (Approximately 25 km / Bursa-İzmir) section of the Project has been started to operate and construction works at Phase II-B (Approximately 327 km. / Bursa-İzmir) section of the Project are ongoing.
The SOCAR Aegean Refinery (STAR) Project
The SOCAR Aegean refinery (STAR) Project consists of the construction, start-up and operation of a new oil refinery plant processing 10 million tons of crude oil per year. The Project site is located on the Aliağa Peninsula, which hosts oil refining, petrochemicals, iron and steel manufacturing plants, ship breaking facilities and various other industrial facilities. The Peninsula is bordered by the town of Aliağa to the east, the Aegean Sea to the west, Nemrut Bay to the south, and Aliağa Bay to the north.
Construction activities at the refinery site started in December 2014. Construction at the Jetties area started in June 2015 with piling activities for Jetty 1.
The Project’s facilities are being constructed on approximately 246 hectares of land. The primary goals of the Project are summarized as follows:
- ensure the continuity of supply for the PETKİM complex by meeting the raw material demand in an economic and reliable manner;
- produce Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel and Jet Fuel for the domestic market, which is currently experiencing supply shortages;
- create additional synergy by establishing Refinery - Petrochemicals integration;
- add value to the national economy through production, trading, employment, logistics, and other related activities; and
- contribute to the reduction of Turkey’s foreign trade deficit.
An Environmental Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) study including Environmental and Social Action Plan (ESAP) have been prepared in terms of compliance with the applicable national and international legislation and requirements. The Project will be operated in accordance with the defined environmental and social requirements. Lender’s Environmental and Social Consultant (LESC) is undertaking construction monitoring and to visit the site twice a year. Within the scope of the Project requirements, Project Environmental Performance(1), Environmental, Social and Health and Safety Management Performance(2), Occupational Health and Safety Issues(3), and Social Aspects and Management(4) subjects are reviewing in detail by the Borrowers, Project team, and the Lenders.
(1)Resource Efficiency and Management, Waste Management, Wastewater Management, Hazardous Materials Management, Air Quality, Noise, Surface, Groundwater, Seawater and Sediment Control, Soil Management, Management of Soil Dumping Sites and of Topsoil, and Biodiversity.
(2)Environmental, Social, Health and Safety Policies, Organization of ESHS Management, Assessment of Environmental and Social Impacts, Contingency Planning and Emergency Procedures, Staff Training and Supervision, Auditing, Inspections and Review.
(3)Accident Reporting, Recording and Investigation, General Housekeeping Issues, Storage of Hazardous Material and Hazardous Waste, Site Safety Issues, Occupational Exposure to Noise, Vibration and Air Pollutants, Personal Protective Equipment, Health and Comfort, Work Equipment and Machinery Safety, and Use of Safety Signs and Traffic Safety.
(4)Labour and Working Conditions, Community Health and Safety and Security, Information Disclosure and Stakeholder Engagement, and Chance Find Procedure